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April 6, 2014

Distillery Equipment Overview

Copper Pot Stills

Although pot stills were developed hundreds of years ago and their design is relatively simple, they're still used to produce some of the finest whiskies in the world. Traditionally, copper pot stills were commonly made using 100% copper. Originally, stills were likely made from copper because it was readily available, very malleable and easy to form, and conducts heat better than almost any other common metal. 

Today, many commercial and craft distillers still utilize 100% copper stills. Even stills that look like they have a stainless steel pot are only merely wrapped with a stainless steel housing that contains steam heating coils. Underneath, the pots are still pure copper.

Copper Vs. Stainless Steel Distillation Equipment

After centuries of advancements in distillation and materials technology, why do the best distilleries continue to use copper stills? Years of trail and error by distillers as well as modern scientific testing has revealed that copper is actually beneficial to the taste and smell of whiskey. Copper reacts with wash liquid and distillate vapor, removing the undesirable chemical compounds such as sulfur. This results in a final product that tastes better, smells better, and is smoother. We sell a beautiful pre-built stainless steel still which has a lot of great features and distills wonderfully. We offer this unit with the option of a copper or stainless steel column and condenser. We always recommend packing the column with pure copper packing material to maximize the benefits that copper provides. 

Copper Pot Still Parts

Whether we're talking about a moonshine still or commercial distillery equipment, the parts included in a whiskey still are very similar. To oversimplify, pot stills are comprised of a boiler, where liquid is heated and turned into vapor, and a condenser, where the vapor is turned back into a liquid. The oldest and most traditional stills include an ogee, swan neck, and lyne arm, in addition to the pot and condenser. The ogee directs vapor into the swan neck, the swan neck rises up from the boiler and directs vapor into the lyne arm, and the lyne arm carries vapor to the condenser. The shape and configuration of the swan neck and lyne will have a slight impact on the characteristic of the spirits produced with the still.

Column Still / Reflux Still

A modern take on the traditional still design employs the use of a slightly more complicated and versatile still head. Modern pot stills utilize modular columns that can be configured to perform specific functions. These stills utilize a boiler that connects to a vapor cone, which directs vapor upward into a column. Columns may be left empty, allowing the still to be run like a traditional pot still. In this design vapor will move up through the column and then directly into a condenser. However, these stills may also be fitted with plates or other material that cause reflux and produce a higher proof spirit or whiskey.

What is a reflux still?

A reflux still contains baffles, plates, scrubber, or packing material to cause partial condensation of alcohol vapors during distillation. For example, if copper column still is equipped with simple copper scrubbers, some of the alcohol vapor will condense on the scrubbers as it moves up through them and will drip back down the column. Reflux action removes water from the alcohol vapor and increases proof of the final product. Reflux stills increase proof of the final spirit and eliminate the need to distill alcohol several times to increase proof.

Column Still Parts

The lower half of simple column stills very much resembles that of a pot still, and includes a copper pot and vapor cone. At the top of the vapor cone, alcohol vapor is directed into the bottom of a column. The column contains packing material or removable plates that allow for the condensation, redirection (down the column), and re-distillation of alcohol vapor and distillate. Plates are often simply flat perforated discs of copper. Alcohol vapor moves upward through the perforations. Some of the vapor will condense and some will move on. The condensed liquid builds up on top of the plates and liquid continues to bubble up through it. Once the liquid level above a plate is high enough, it will flow down a "downcomer," which is simply a pipe that allows liquid to overflow down to the plate below. There are many other plate designs, but this one is very common, very simple, and very effective.

Dephlegmator Stills

For most applications, dephlegmators are not necessary. Many craft distilleries do not even employ the use of this technology. However for some applications they are useful.

Dephlegmators are sometimes incorporated into column still designs and are devices that work in a similar fashion to the copper packing and plates listed in the column still section above. However, there is one big difference. In the examples above, reflux is the result of passive or "natural cooling" caused by material temperature differentials between the boiler and the top of the column. Dephlegmators use "active cooling" to cause condensation of alcohol vapor and induce reflux action.

Anatomy of a Dephlegmator

A dephlegmator is essentially an inline condenser built into the top of a distillation column. The dephlegmator can be as simple as a copper coil contained within the column. The coil would be hooked up to a cool water supply and water would be circulated through it (in a regulated fashion) to achieve the desired level of reflux. Dephlegmators can be as complicated as several pipes running through a water cooled jacket. Again, the flow of water would be regulated until the desired level of reflux is achieved. 

Still Parrot

A parrot is a device that allows for measurement of the proof of alcohol comes out of the still. Distillate drips out of a stills condenser into a collection cup at the top of the parrot. The whiskey, moonshine, fuel alcohol, spirits, etc., flows down to the bottom of the parrot and then upward through the hydrometer chamber. A hydrometer is floated in the chamber and allows for easy reading of proof, as the still is producing alcohol. Parrots work like artesian wells, and the liquid product overflows out of the hydrometer chamber and then into it's final collection vessel. Checkout our article "How To Proof Moonshine" for more information on using a proofing parrot.

Thanks for reading! Make sure to check out our hybrid copper pot stills and stainless steel column stills before you leave.


  • I have made moonshine apple brandy with your 5gal. Pot still. While the product tastes very good, my problem is volume. I obtained 6%ABV with mash and 55%ABV (110proof) with distillate. I let fermentation proceed for 1 1/2 weeks with apples natural yeast, and then pitched British wine yeast into fermentor, for another week. Would this have been problem, or did I not leave brew long enough? I only obtained 750mls distillate @ 55%ABV
    Thanks Peter

    Posted by Peter on October 05, 2016
  • I appreciate you sharing this blog article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

    Posted by loanemu on October 18, 2015
  • Please I need to know how last the scruber, and how many times I need to clean it for a good product
    Posted by lorenzo sanchez on June 02, 2015
  • What is used to weld the copper together?

    Posted by Robert Phillips on August 06, 2014

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