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March 29, 2013

How Commercial Moonshine Mash is Made

how to make moonshineBefore we get started, a reminder: Distilling alcohol is illegal without a federal fuel alcohol or distilled spirit plant permit as well as relevant state permits. Our distillation equipment is designed for legal uses only and the information in this article is for educational purposes only. Please read our complete legal summary for more information on the legalities of distillation.

There are three distinct ways that a commercial distiller would likely make a moonshine mash. The first two methods are based on traditional corn whiskey recipes. The third method is a cheap and easy (and a good starting point for new commercial distillers), but isn’t recommended for someone serious about making a high quality product.

Keep in mind that crafting moonshine combines both science and art. A novice commercial distiller or a distillery that focuses on making fast, cheap booze for the purpose of flavoring would start with the 3rd recipe listed here (sugar shine). A distillery more focused on higher quality spirits with more complex characteristics would likely chose to use the all-grain "corn whiskey recipe. A middle point would be the "thin mash" recipe.

corn whiskey

1- Corn Whiskey

Early American farmers found that the same amount of corn sold for a few dollars at market could easily yield a few hundred dollars after it was mashed, fermented and distilled. Corn also yields more sugar than other grain crops. Thus, mashing corn and turning it into alcohol became the standard method of alcohol production on the early American frontier, and “corn whiskey” was born.

A commercial distiller making a high quality finished product would believe that pure, all grain whiskey is the way to go when making a craft spirit. Corn whiskey is preferred because it's naturally sweet, it’s smooth, and it’s tradition. Here’s a simple way they would use to make a corn whiskey mash with some additional options for the advanced distiller:

Ingredients:

Procedure:

Heat 5 gallons of mash water up to 165F. Turn off heat when target temperature is reached and stir in the 8.5 pounds of corn. Stir the mash continuously for about 5 minutes then stir for a few seconds every five minutes until the temperature drops to 152F.  Once the target temp is met, stir in the malted barley. Cover and leave it be for about 90 minutes, uncovering only to stir every 15 minutes or so.  At this point all of the starches should be converted into sugar. Leave it sit for a few hours or use an immersion chiller to cool the mash to 70 degrees. At 70 degrees, add yeast, aerate (by dumping back and forth between two containers), cap, and add an air lock. In a week or two fermentation will be complete. Leave it settle for another week and it will be ready to distill. Siphon into still. Make sure to leave yeast and other sediment behind.

crushed malted barleyTips for Advanced Distillers

Advanced distillers should consider adding 2tsp of gypsum (CaSO4) to the mash water and adjusting the pH of mash water to somewhere between 5.8 and 6.0 before adding any ingredients. After adding gypsum, add citric or tartaric acid to adjust the pH of the mash water downward. If the pH needs adjusted upward, add calcium carbonate (CaCO3). 

A second trick for advanced distillers is using tincture of iodine to determine if all starches have been completely converted into sugar. Drip a few  drops of the clear yellow liquid (not the solids) from the top of the mash (after the 90 minute rest) onto a white plate. Drip a drop or two of the tincture of iodine onto the sample on plate. If it turns blue, there is still starch in the mixture. Rest it longer. Discard the sample.

2 - Thin Mash Whiskey

Cooking a thin mash is an easy way to double the quantity of mash while retaining some of the natural grain flavor of corn whiskey. It's made by starting with an actual mash, such as the one above, and then adding water and granular sugar to increase the quantity of wash.

Ingredients:

  • 10 gallons of water (5 gal to start then 5 more)
  • 8.5 pounds of flaked maize
  • 1.5 pounds of crushed malted barley
  • 6-8 pounds of sugar

Yeast - Read this article to learn about yest pitching procedures

Procedure:

Creating a thin mash is accomplished in two steps. First, cook the standard corn whiskey mash described above. However, after the final rest period, add 5 gallons of cold water and 6-8 pounds of sugar. Once the mash temperature has dropped to 96 degrees, it is ready for aeration, yeast and fermentation, as described in the Corn Whiskey recipe above.

Advanced distillers should shoot for a specific gravity of about 1.08. Dilute with water if high.

3- Sugar Shine

sugar shine

Real corn whiskey is rather uncommon these days. More often than not, modern moonshine is nothing more than straight sugar with a bit of flavoring. Although it isn’t as smooth as corn whiskey, what it lacks in flavor and smoothness is made up by convenience. Also, some people don't care about corn flavor...they'd rather have apple pie, peaches, or other fruit flavors. This recipe works just fine for that stuff. Here’s how a sugar shine wash is made:

Ingredients:
  • 5 gallons water
  • 8 pounds of white sugar
  • Yeast

Procedure:

Heat 2 gallons of water (to no more than 120 degrees) and add sugar a few pounds at a time. Stir until dissolved and add more sugar.  Keep adding sugar until all sugar has been added / dissolved. Dump this mixture into a fermenter and add 3 more gallons of water. Shoot for a final temperature of 96 degrees and adjust heat of additional water accordingly. Add yeast once final liquid temp is 70 degrees. Aerate by dumping back and forth between two buckets a few times. Shoot for a constant fermentation temperature of 70 degrees for the shortest fermentation time and highest alcohol yield. If the distilling environment isn't this warm, wrap the fermenter in a blanket and use a heating pad if necessary. Leave it sit for a week to ferment and another week to settle. Then, siphon into a still, being careful to not overfill (the vapor cone should not contain any liquid).

Is Making Moonshine Legal:

Remember, this info is for education only. Making a mash is legal because it's essentially just beer, which is currently legal in all states, but distilling alcohol is illegal unless an individual has a fuel alcohol or a distilled spirit plant permit.

A Brief History of Moonshine:

The depression, prohibition, and limited access to the mountainous region of Appalachia gave rise to an almost forgotten yet legendary beverage called moonshine.  “Moonshine” used to be a generic term for homemade whiskey. The term was coined due to the fact that early “bootleggers” often made their whiskey in the middle of the night, under the light of a full moon – out of sight of neighbors and the law. These days it actually refers to a robust commercial market of high proof, unaged, and often flavored spirits, such as the products made by Ole Smoky. There is no standard recipe for moonshine; it can be made from any combination of grains in any type of still. However, moonshine made in the mountains of Appalachia was traditionally un-aged corn whiskey and was made in copper pot stills.

  • You’d think if people start a web site that people like me visit , would create or at least answer the people that visit your site so if they did want to make there own fuel for there mower could find the answers they need to now lawn mowers sometimes run better when the fuel smells n tastes better also better gas mileage 😵‍💫😁👍🤔

    Posted by bill on May 09, 2022
  • Always well presented INFORMATION !! YOU GUYS KNOW YOUR STUFF !!
    i’LL BE TRYING THE ALL CORN RECIPE SOON … WHEN i FIND A WAY TO CRUSH IT.
    iN THE MEANTIME .. i WANT TO TRY RICE MASH … HEARD RUMOURS BUT NOT SURE WHAT TO EXPECT FROM IT … MAYBE HARSH ? that’s THE FUN OF HOME DISTILLATION !
    thank YOU FOR THIS EXCELLENT SITE !

    Posted by Noel on April 06, 2022
  • Could you use corn maze malt instead of Barley malt to make it gluten free?

    Posted by Denise Frye on March 21, 2022
  • When I was a kid in Western PA. my neighbor would make plum brandy. He’d give my mom a jar or two and my brother and I’d sneak a short. It was really good. I always meant to have him teach me how to make it,but he passed and with him the recipe. I’ve tried to recreate it,but no luck. Don’t wait to learn from the old timers,they might sneak off on ya!

    Posted by Jimbo on March 14, 2022
  • Can corn sugar be used instead of granulated sugar

    Posted by Mike on February 07, 2022
  • My rye recipe calls for mash 5.8 ph, mine is 3.2 ph, what do I do to get it to 5.8 Ph.
    Thanks

    Posted by Paul on February 07, 2022
  • This site is very educational. I love how you can get recipes and know whats in Moonshine. I cannot wait to try this out and try some moonshine.
    Shine on..

    Posted by Gerald Vandaele on January 20, 2022
  • Can someone please tell me how do I do run my shine a second time do I just dump the distillate in the pot or do I add water to as well

    Posted by Dustin on January 17, 2022
  • How much yeast for the corn whiskey recipe

    Posted by Steven on December 30, 2021
  • Most shiners I knew used malted corn. Burlap bags of shelled whole corn were dipped in the creek and allowed to sprout. Green malt whiskey was made by immediately grinding and using the sprouted corn. The preferred way was to dry the malt before grinding and using for the the mash. Unfortunately for speed and yield baker’s yeast and sugar were added to the mash. Depending on the maker some shine leaned more toward corn malt flavored sugar shine.

    Posted by Ed on December 01, 2021
  • I find your article on Corn whiskey interesting, informative and helplful and wonder if you might have a book which flurther details the process which i could plurchase. List of other available supplies might be helpful.
    many thanks

    Posted by George K. Walker on November 13, 2021
  • First time using cracked corn. What type of sugar is best? White sugar or raw sugar?

    Posted by Brian on November 13, 2021
  • Can you make ashine with high fructose corn syrup

    Posted by Mike on November 13, 2021
  • Can you make your mash in a 5 gal bucket?

    Posted by JOhn on November 13, 2021
  • what water is best to use for your mash and why
    mineral, tap or distilled

    Posted by bryan on November 13, 2021
  • Not sure how critical the amount of yeast to use for 10 gallon still I use turbo yeast in corn and barley and have been using two packets of yeast is another yeast ok

    Posted by DAle sMith on November 13, 2021
  • For your corn whiskey recipe, how much yeast do you add?

    Posted by Andrew on November 13, 2021
  • how mush yeast is added on the corn shine recipe for 5 gallon kettle

    Posted by PIET HOLZ on November 13, 2021
  • New at thas I have done suger ….corn syrup srup……..cracked corn

    Posted by Tim on May 12, 2021
  • How much yest is added on the sugar shine recipe? How do you know the right amount? What happens if you add too little? Or too much?

    Posted by Adam on March 16, 2021


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